Akdeniz’de Balıkların Kurtulabilmesi İçin Balıkçılığın Değişimi Şart

Dünyada aşırı avlanmanın en fazla olduğu deniz olan Akdeniz’de, endüstriyel ve kaçak balıkçılık hem denizimizi hem de gıdamızı tehlikeye atıyor.

Yapılan araştırmalar, Akdeniz’deki balık stoklarının yaklaşık yüzde 75’inin aşırı avlandığını gösteriyor. İleri teknolojiyle donatılmış dev filolar, tek seferde binlerce ton balığı ağlarına doldurup denizleri silip süpürüyor.

Çölleşen denizlerde, balık türleri yok olmaya yüz tutmakta ve tek tehlike aşırı avlanma da değil.

Gezegenimizi etkisine alan iklim krizi ve küresel ısınma yüzünden, bu yüzyılın sonuna kadar Akdeniz suyunun 3,5 derece ısınacağı belirtilmekte. Buna ek olarak suyun pH değerinin her on yılda bir 0,018 ila 0,028 birim azalarak Akdenizin daha çok karbon tutmasına yol açması ve asitlenmenin artması söz konusu.
Değişen sıcaklık ve pH oranı ile sadece Akdeniz değil, içindeki balık türleri de değişecek. Uzmanlar 2050’ye kadar, türe bağlı olarak, balıkların ortalama vücut ağırlığının %50 oranında azalabileceğini belirtiyor.

Akdeniz genelinde yüzde 55’i küçük ölçekli balıkçılardan oluşan balıkçılık sektörü doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak 505 bin kişiyi istihdam etmekte.

Bununla beraber hızlı büyüyen ve sürdürülebilir olmayan bu sektör, iklim krizi ve biyolojik çeşitlilik kaybı ile birleştiğinde hem insanlığın hem de doğanın zarar göreceği bir dengesizliğe doğru ilerliyor.
Yine de çözümü de aynı şekilde hızlı ve dengeli kararlar almadan uygulamak, sistemi daha da tehlikeye atabilir. Örnek olarak, günümüzde çözüm gibi görülen küçük ölçekli balıkçılık bile bazı durumlarda endüstriyel balıkçılık piyasasının uzantısı haline getirilmiş durumda.

Yapılan çalışmalar bir yandan hızla büyüyen av filolarıyla beraber azalan stokların paylaşılamamasının yasadışı avcılığı körüklediğini, diğer yandan da komisyoncu sisteminin yerleşmesi ile sektörü çıkmaza girdiğini belirtmekte.

O yüzden, uzmanlar küçük balıkçıların da stokların değişken durumuna göre hedef türlere ve başka türlere zarar vermeyecek av malzemesini seçmesi, türün devamlılığını etkilemeyecek sezonlarda avlanması gerektiğini belirtmekte.
Bu karmaşanın içinde sesi duyulmayanlar ise maalesef küçük balıkçılar olmakta. Bu yüzden yapılan çalışmalar, aynı zamanda balıkçıların kooperatifleşmesini önermekte.
Yerel ve ulusal yönetimler, böylelikle gerçekten sürdürülebilir avlanan küçük ölçekli balıkçıları pek çok yoldan teşvik edebilir.

Yine de sadece balıkçıların değil, balıkların da korunmaya ihtiyacı var. Bunun en önemli adımı ise deniz ürün stoklarının tespiti ve buna uygun biçimde av filolarının dengelenmesi. Balıklar ile ilgili verilerin olmaması, geleceğin görülemeyip, av filolarının kontrolsüz büyümesine yol açmakta.

Ülkemizde maalesef, balıkçılıkla ilgili kapsamlı çalışmalar yapan, denetleyen, yasaları güncelleyen bir bakanlık yok.Uzmanlar, bu gibi yönetsel eksikliklerin büyük tekne sayısının çarpık bir biçimde artmasına, böylece kontrolün elden çıkmasına neden olduğunu belirtiyor.
Buna ek olarak biyolojik çeşitliliği ve balıkçılığı kurtarmak için ülkelerin deniz sahaları üzerinde anlaşıp, Akdeniz’in en az %30’unun korunma altına alınması gerekmekte.

Halihazırdaki durum, sadece küçük balıkçıların hayat tarzının ve gelirin kaybolmasına yol açmakla kalmıyor, deniz ürünlerinin pahalanarak adil bir gıda kaynağı olmasını zorlaştırıyor. Savunmasız kalan Akdeniz ve içerisindeki yaşam ise iklim krizine karşı varoluş savaşı vermekte.

Balıkçılık ayarlanması zor bir denge ve tek suçlu balıkçılar da değil. Ama kontrolsüzlüğün ve hırsın gözünü boyadığı büyüme, dünyanın her yerinde olduğu gibi, Akdeniz’i de tehlikeye atmış durumda.

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